Author Identifier

Nora Tawfiq Samoudi (Dekaidek)

Date of Award


Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Business and Law

First Supervisor

Dr Ann-Claire Larsen

Second Supervisor

Associate Professor Margaret Giles


This thesis explores social practices, policies and laws constituting criminal and social justice approaches to providing services and amenities for the sex trafficked females in Jordan. As the discussion of sex trafficked females overlaps with sex workers, this research explores the human rights of both groups who experience different forms of gender-based violence. To understand the protection, care and support that Jordan provides, I interviewed seven service providers offering protection for victims of sex trafficking. Also, I analysed the semiprohibitionist Jordanian Penal Code and the Human Trafficking Legislation that criminalise sex trafficking perpetrators and sex-related actions. This research relies on insights from intersectionality theory to enquire into how better to protect and support women who face intersecting social disadvantages and the threat of honour-based killing that impede them from accessing social and criminal justice. This thesis explores three themes, cultural context, feminism and human rights, and argues for social justice for sex trafficked victims and sex workers including those who neither want to exit sex work nor raise a complaint to the administrators of criminal justice. This thesis found that sex trafficked victims and sex workers were not offered appropriate assistance as the service providers were disempowered. It also found that failure to understand honour and morality reinforces the stereotyping of sex workers.

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Access to the appendices of this thesis is not available.


Paper Location