Antecedents and outcomes of informal learning in Ghanaian hospitality sector small and medium-sized enterprises: The mediating role of job crafting

Author Identifier

Justice Kwabena Kodom-Wiredu

Date of Award


Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Business and Law

First Supervisor

Janice Redmond

Second Supervisor

Ben Farr-Wharton

Third Supervisor

Jalleh Sharafizad

Fourth Supervisor

Andrei Lux


Informal learning is one of the most common and cost-effective approaches through which employees learn in the workplace; yet, it has received limited theoretical extension and contextual applicability. Drawing on job crafting (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001), self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and complex resource-based view (Colbert, 2004) theories, the current study explored how employees’ proactive behaviours and intrinsic motivation and small and medium-sized enterprises’ managerial informality influence the informal learning activities of Ghanaian small and medium-sized enterprise hotel frontline employees. Further, the study examined how informal learning influences frontline employees’ innovative work behaviours and job performance. To achieve the research objectives, 375 small and medium-sized enterprise hotel frontline workers were sampled from Ghana. Data collected were analysed using structural
equation modelling. The analysis revealed that job crafting, self-determination and small and medium-sized enterprise managerial informality have positive relationships with informal learning. A bootstrap mediational analysis found that job crafting partially mediates between self-determination and informal learning but does not mediate between small and medium-sized enterprise managerial informality and informal learning. Additional analysis revealed that job crafting and informal learning positively relate to frontline employees’ innovative work behaviour and job performance, respectively. Finally, the results also showed that innovative work behaviour positively relates to job performance. The implications and contributions of the study to theory, practice and policy are also discussed, and areas for further research are suggested.

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