Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Education


Faculty of Education and Arts

First Advisor

Dr Jeremy Pagram

Second Advisor

Dr Martin Cooper


E-learning implementation in higher education continues to gain prominence in both developed and developing countries, and while most universities in ICT-rich environments are exploring different ways of using ICT and multimedia resources to enhance teaching and learning, the same cannot be said about ICT-challenged environments. Nevertheless, the question of successful and sustainable e-learning implementation continues to remain a challenge, particularly in ICT-challenged environments.

The primary purpose of this research was to examine policy and strategy issues that have influenced the process of e-learning implementation at the University of Ghana (UG), given that previous ICT and e-learning initiatives failed to improve teaching and learning. The argument underlying this research is that successful e-learning is based on an institution’s capacity and how effectively the available resources are mobilised, coordinated and managed to develop skills and competencies. Synthesising the theoretical models of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Adoption Model (2003), Collis and Moonen’s 4-E model (2001), and other institutional experiences of e-learning implementation, this thesis argues that there are three thematic domains (Institution, People, and Technology) that e-learning implementation must focus on.

The results of this research show that acquiring technology infrastructure, organising workshops, and asking users to accept and adopt e-learning is not enough to promote and achieve a successful e-learning implementation. Policies, objectives, and strategic level checklists are critical for success using the framework developed in this thesis for ICT-challenged environments.