Development of a new measure of environmental congruence to complement a revised Prison Preference Inventory

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Dr Greg Dear


Despite a 60-year history of investigation, little is understood of how physical and/or social aspects of the prison environment work directly to influence adjustment behaviour of prisoners. A major study in 1972 by Huns Toch and colleagues led to the development of the Prison Preference Inventory (PPI). This was designed to elicit a prisoner respondent's hierarchy of psychological needs while imprisoned. Based on Murray's needs-press model, Toch argued that each prisoner had a unique configuration of eight major needs (termed environmental concerns) namely Safety, Support, Activity, Social Stimulation, Emotional Feedback, Privacy, Freedom and Structure.

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