Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - ECU Access Only


Edith Cowan University

Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences

First Supervisor

Dr Greg Dear


Despite a 60-year history of investigation, little is understood of how physical and/or social aspects of the prison environment work directly to influence adjustment behaviour of prisoners. A major study in 1972 by Huns Toch and colleagues led to the development of the Prison Preference Inventory (PPI). This was designed to elicit a prisoner respondent's hierarchy of psychological needs while imprisoned. Based on Murray's needs-press model, Toch argued that each prisoner had a unique configuration of eight major needs (termed environmental concerns) namely Safety, Support, Activity, Social Stimulation, Emotional Feedback, Privacy, Freedom and Structure.