Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in plasticity induced by paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation in humans
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Plasticity can be induced at human corticospinalmotoneuronal synapses by delivery of repeated, paired stimuli to corticospinal axons and motoneurons in a technique called paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS). To date, the mechanisms of the induced plasticity are unknown. To determine whether PCMS-induced plasticity is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), the effect of the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist dextromethorphan on PCMS-induced facilitation was assessed in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. PCMS consisted of 100 pairs of stimuli, delivered at an interstimulus interval that produces facilitation at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses that excite biceps brachii motoneurons. Transcranial magnetic stimulation elicited corticospinal volleys, which were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses just before antidromic potentials elicited in motoneurons with electrical brachial plexus stimulation. To measure changes in the corticospinal pathway at a spinal level, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation (cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials, CMEPs) were measured before and for 30 min after PCMS. Individuals who displayed a ≥10% increase in CMEP size after PCMS on screening were eligible to take part in the 2-day experiment. After PCMS, there was a significant difference in CMEP area between placebo and dextromethorphan days (P ~ 0.014). On the placebo day PCMS increased average CMEP areas to 127 = 46% of baseline, whereas on the dextromethorphan day CMEP area was decreased to 86 = 33% of baseline (mean = SD; placebo: n ~ 11, dextromethorphan: n ~ 10). Therefore, dextromethorphan suppressed the facilitation of CMEPs after PCMS. This indicates that plasticity induced at synapses in the human spinal cord by PCMS may be dependent on NMDARs. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation can strengthen the synaptic connections between corticospinal axons and motoneurons at a spinal level in humans. The mechanism of the induced plasticity is unknown. In our 2-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we show that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist dextromethorphan suppressed plasticity induced by paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation, suggesting that an NMDAR-dependent mechanism is involved.