Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science Honours


Faculty of Communications, Health and Science

First Advisor

Dr Steven Hinckley


This research project examines the growth dependant properties and composition of Cadmium Sulfide thin films produced by the Chemical Bath Deposition Method. The specific areas investigated are the effect of deposition temperature, the effect of an Indium dopant on the films structure and properties, and the effects of post deposition processing such as annealing in air on the film composition. The chemical bath deposition apparatus used has been refined and tested to ensure that the films were grown in a more efficient manner than previously, with more control of the influencing deposition parameters such as temperature. Films grown by the CBD method with this apparatus were durable, yellowish in colour, and adherent to the glass substrates used. The CdS thin films were then subjected to a number of analysis techniques to determine their properties. These techniques include Proton Induced X-ray Emission, Atomic Force Microscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with Charge Contrast Imaging, and Photoconductivity. The results from the analysis of the CdS thin films revealed the presence of nodule structures on the surface of the annealed films. Films produced at lower deposition temperatures seemed to have increased sulfur deficiencies, resulting in an increased Cadmium to sulfur ratio. The Indium doping was found to be inhomogeneous through the depth of the film. The Indium doping concentration in the deposition was also found to be consistent with the concentration found in the films by analysis. Higher deposition temperatures were found to encourage the deposition of colloidal particulates on the surface of the substrates. Annealing of the CdS was found to produce films with surface features that were rougher in appearance.