Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging





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Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute / School of Medical and Health Sciences




National Health and Medical Research Council / Healthway / Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation / Department of Health, Western Australia / Merit Award / Royal Perth Hospital Career Advancement Fellowship (CAF 130/2020) / Emerging Leader Fellowship, Western Australian Future Health and Innovation Fund / Department of Health (WA) / National Heart Foundation of Australia Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship (ID: 102498) / National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship (ID: 102817)

Grant Number

NHMRC Numbers : 254627, 303169, 572604, 1172987, 1116973

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Sim, M., Smith, C., Bondonno, N. P., Radavelli-Bagatini, S., Blekkenhorst, L. C., Dalla Via, J., ... & Lewis, J. R. (2023). Higher dietary vitamin K intake is associated with better physical function and lower long-term injurious falls risk in community-dwelling older women. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 27, 38-45.


Background: In recent years, a potential beneficial role of Vitamin K in neuromuscular function has been recognised. However, the optimal dietary intake of Vitamin K to support muscle function in the context of falls prevention remains unknown. Objective: To examine the relationship of dietary Vitamin K1 and K2 with muscle function and long-term injurious fall-related hospitalisations in older women. Design: Cohort study. Participants: 1347 community-dwelling older Australian women ≥ 70 years. Measurements: A new Australian Vitamin K nutrient database, supplemented with published data, was used to calculate Vitamin K1 and K2 intake from a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline (1998). Muscle function (grip strength and timed-up-and-go; TUG) as well plasma Vitamin D status (25OHD) were also assessed at baseline. Fall-related hospitalisations over 14.5 years were obtained from linked health records. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression and Cox-proportional hazard models were used to analyse the data. Results: Over 14.5 years of follow-up (14,774 person-years), 535 (39.7 %) women experienced a fall-related hospitalisation. Compared to women with the lowest Vitamin K1 intake (Quartile 1, median 49 µg/d), those with the highest intake (Quartile 4, median 120 µg/d) had 29 % lower odds (OR 0.71 95 % CI 0.52 – 0.97) for slow TUG performance ( > 10.2 s), and 26 % lower relative hazards of a fall-related hospitalisation (HR 0.74 95 %CI 0.59 – 0.93) after multivariable adjustment. These associations were non-linear and plateaued at moderate intakes of ∼ 70 – 100 µg/d. There was no relation to grip strength. Vitamin K2 intakes were not associated with muscle function or falls. Conclusion: A higher habitual Vitamin K1 intake was associated with better physical function and lower long-term injurious falls risk in community-dwelling older women. In the context of musculoskeletal health, Vitamin K1 found abundantly in green leafy vegetables should be promoted.



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