Experiments into the interaction of side dilution jets with bluff-body stabilised annular jets

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science






School of Engineering




Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan / Edith Cowan University (ECU) Australiaaward of HEC-ECU PhD scholarship


Gillani, S. E., & Al-Abdeli, Y. M. (2023). Experiments into the interaction of side dilution jets with bluff-body stabilised annular jets. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 146, Article 110906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2023.110906


Fundamental insights into the effects of side dilution jets on the flow behaviour and turbulence field in gas turbine combustors further advances the ability to use these jets to control (upstream) flame stability and (downstream) emissions. Despite this, the interaction of side dilution jets with typical flame anchoring mechanisms, such as bluff-bodies, and annular flows, both swirling and non-swirling, remains elusive due to the challenges of undertaking highly resolved laser diagnostics in such complex geometries. In this work, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the interaction of turbulent side dilution jets (Red = 18,000 and 11,300) with bluff-body stabilised annular jets (Res = 35500 and 17800), under both swirling (S = 0.3) and non-swirling (S = 0) conditions. Boundary conditions for the cases studied are well-defined through Constant Temperature Anemometry, which in conjunction with the PIV resolved flow field means the results presented additionally serve as good benchmark cases for modelling (not undertaken here). The experiments are conducted in an optically accessible 700 mm long square-like (310 mm × 310 mm) enclosure equipped with four peripheral side dilution jets on the rounded corner supports. Results show that irrespective of the flow configuration used (swirling or non-swirling), side dilution jets considerably modify the overall flow field and lead to the development of characteristic recirculation zones on the periphery of the annular jet, named as Peripheral Recirculation Zones (PRZ). In the upstream region, PRZ significantly promote turbulence in the outer shear layer of the bluff-body stabilised annular jet, leading to a massive 176% (at x/D = 1.4) and 218% (x/D = 1.8) increase in peak turbulent kinetic energy. These high levels of turbulence further magnify closer to the location of the side jets. In the downstream (beyond x/D > 2) of the bluff-body stabilised annular jet, noticeable increases in centreline velocity decay (13%) and jet spreading (32%) are observed in the presence of a PRZ, which indicates better mixing and flow entrainment. The overall effects of side dilution jets vary directly and inversely with the Reynolds number of side dilution jets and annular jets, respectively. To resolve the flow dynamic behaviour independent of heat release, all tests are undertaken isothermally (non-reacting).



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