Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









Centre for Precision Health / School of Medical and Health Sciences




National Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Number: 82003559


Li, Z., Lu, F., Liu, M., Guo, M., Tao, L., Wang, T., ... & Liu, X. (2023). Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with comorbidities in Beijing. GeoHealth, 7(3), Article e2022GH000734.


The association between CO and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been widely reported; however, the association among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or hypertension has remained largely unknown in China. Over-dispersed generalized additive model was adopted to quantity the associations between CO and COPD with T2DM or hypertension. Based on principal diagnosis, COPD cases were identified according to the International Classification of Diseases (J44), and a history of T2DM and hypertension was coded as E12 and I10-15, O10-15, P29, respectively. A total of 459,258 COPD cases were recorded from 2014 to 2019. Each interquartile range uptick in CO at lag 03 corresponded to 0.21% (95%CI: 0.08%–0.34%), 0.39% (95%CI: 0.13%–0.65%), 0.29% (95%CI: 0.13%–0.45%) and 0.27% (95%CI: 0.12%–0.43%) increment in admissions for COPD, COPD with T2DM, COPD with hypertension and COPD with both T2DM and hypertension, respectively. The effects of CO on COPD with T2DM (Z = 0.77, P = 0.444), COPD with hypertension (Z = 0.19, P = 0.234) and COPD with T2DM and hypertension (Z = 0.61, P = 0.543) were insignificantly higher than that on COPD. Stratification analysis showed that females were more vulnerable than males except for T2DM group (COPD: Z = 3.49, P < 0.001; COPD with T2DM: Z = 0.176, P = 0.079; COPD with hypertension: Z = 2.48, P = 0.013; COPD with both T2DM and hypertension: Z = 2.44, P = 0.014); No statistically significant difference could be found between age groups (COPD: Z = 1.63, P = 0.104; COPD with T2DM: Z = 0.23, P = 0.821; COPD with hypertension: Z = 0.53, P = 0.595; COPD with both T2DM and hypertension: Z = 0.71, P = 0.476); Higher effects appeared in cold seasons than warm seasons on COPD (Z = 0.320, P < 0.001). This study demonstrated an increased risk of COPD with comorbidities related to CO exposure in Beijing. We further provided important information on lag patterns, susceptible subgroups, and sensitive seasons, as well as the characteristics of the exposure-response curves.



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