Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

JMIR Public Health and Surveillance



First Page


PubMed ID



JMIR Publications


School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Precision Health




National Natural Science Foundation of China


Wu, Z., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Li, X., Tao, L., & Guo, X. (2023). Temporal and bidirectional association between blood pressure variability and arterial stiffness: Cross-lagged cohort study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 9, article e45324.


BACKGROUND: The causal relationship between blood pressure variability (BPV) and arterial stiffness remains debated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the temporal and bidirectional associations between long-term BPV and arterial stiffness using a cohort design with multiple surveys. METHODS: Participants from the Beijing Health Management Cohort who underwent health examinations from visit 1 (2010-2011) to visit 5 (2018-2019) were enrolled in this study. Long-term BPV was defined as intraindividual variation using the coefficient of variation (CV) and SD. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The bidirectional relationship between BPV and arterial stiffness was explored using cross-lagged analysis and linear regression models, with records before and after visit 3 categorized as phase 1 and phase 2, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 1506 participants, who were a mean of 56.11 (SD 8.57) years old, 1148 (76.2%) were male. The cross-lagged analysis indicated that the standardized coefficients of BPV at phase 1 directing to the baPWV level at phase 2 were statistically significant but not vice-versa. The adjusted regression coefficients of the CV were 4.708 (95% CI 0.946-8.470) for systolic blood pressure, 3.119 (95% 0.166-6.073) for diastolic pressure, and 2.205 (95% CI 0.300-4.110) for pulse pressure. The coefficients of the SD were 4.208 (95% CI 0.177-8.239) for diastolic pressure and 4.247 (95% CI 0.448-8.046) for pulse pressure. The associations were predominant in the subgroup with hypertension, but we did not observe any significant association of baPWV level with subsequent BPV indices. CONCLUSIONS: The findings supported a temporal relationship between long-term BPV and arterial stiffness level, especially among people with hypertension.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.