School of Science / Security Research Institute
National Natural Science Foundation of China / Major Science and Technology plan of Hainan Province / Scientific Research Fund Project of Hainan University
To provide rapid direction finding (DF) for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) emitters in future wireless networks, a low-complexity direction of arrival (DOA) estimation architecture for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) receiver arrays is constructed. In this paper, we propose two strategies to address the extremely high complexity caused by eigenvalue decomposition of the received signal covariance matrix. Firstly, a rapid power iterative rotational invariance (RPI-RI) method is proposed, which adopts the signal subspace generated by power iteration to obtain the final direction estimation through rotational invariance between subarrays. RPI-RI causes a significant complexity reduction at the cost of a substantial performance loss. In order to further reduce the complexity and provide good directional measurement results, the rapid power iterative polynomial rooting (RPI-PR) method is proposed, which utilizes the noise subspace combined with the polynomial solution method to obtain the optimal direction estimation. In addition, the influence of initial vector selection on convergence in the power iteration is analyzed, especially when the initial vector is orthogonal to the incident wave. Simulation results show that the two proposed methods outperform the conventional DOA estimation methods in terms of computational complexity. In particular, the RPI-PR method achieves more than two orders of magnitude lower complexity than conventional methods and achieves performance close to the Cramér–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Moreover, it is verified that the initial vector and the relative error have a significant impact on the performance with respect to the computational complexity.
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