Effects of a 10-month neuromuscular training program on strength, power, speed, and vault performance in young female gymnasts

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Medicine and science in sports and exercise





First Page


Last Page


PubMed ID



Wolters Kluwer


School of Medical and Health Sciences




Moeskops, S., Oliver, J. L., Read, P. J., Haff, G. G., Myer, G. D., & Lloyd, R. S. (2022). Effects of a 10-Month Neuromuscular Training Program on Strength, Power, Speed and Vault Performance in Young Female Gymnasts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 54(5), 861-871. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002862


PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate a 10-month neuromuscular training (NMT) intervention on isometric and dynamic kinetics, standing long jump (SLJ) distance, speed, and sport-specific performance. METHODS: Forty-three prepubertal female gymnasts were allocated into either a gymnastics + NMT (gNMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15), or maturity-matched control (CON; n = 12) group. The gNMT followed a 10-month, twice-weekly NMT program that targeted movement competency, strength, power, and speed. Vaulting vertical take-off velocity, speed, SLJ distance, and kinetics during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ) were measured at baseline and thereafter at 4, 7, and 10 months. Within-group differences were calculated using 3 × 4 repeated-measures ANCOVA. RESULTS: Interaction effects were observed for SLJ distance and various IMTP, DJ, and vaulting variables. The gNMT showed significant improvements in IMTP absolute force and SLJ distance after 4 months and each subsequent testing session. IMTP relative force and various CMJ and DJ kinetics significantly improved in the gNMT from 7 months. Significant gains in speed and vaulting take-off velocity occurred after 10 months. The GYM group achieved some significant improvements in CMJ impulse, absolute isometric strength, and DJ spring-like behavior, whereas the CON group did not experience any changes. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NMT to gymnastics training improved various isometric and dynamic kinetics, SLJ distance, speed, and vaulting take-off velocity in the gNMT, changes that were not equally evidenced for GYM or CON. The threshold for most of the training-induced adaptations observed in IMTP relative force, CMJ and DJ kinetics, sprint speed, and vaulting were achieved after 7 months, emphasizing the efficacy of long-term NMT programs for young gymnasts.



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