Author Identifier

Nicola Bondonno

ORCID : 0000-0001-5905-444X

Catherine Bondonno

ORCID : 0000-0001-8509-439X

Lauren Blekkenhorst

ORCID : 0000-0003-1561-9052

Marc Sim

ORCID : 0000-0001-5166-0605

Joshua Lewis

ORCID : 0000-0003-1003-8443

Jonathan Hodgson

ORCID : 0000-0001-6184-7764

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism


Oxford University Press


School of Medical and Health Sciences / Institute for Nutrition Research




This work was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Early Career Fellowship (grant No. APP1159914 to N.P.B.), Australia; an NHMRC of Australia Emerging Leadership Investigator Grant (ID No. 1172987 to L.C.B.); a National Heart Foundation of Australia Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship (No. ID 102498); a National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship (No. ID 102817 to J.R.L.); an NHMRC of Australia Senior Research Fellowship (grant No. APP1116937 to J.M.H.); and an NHMRC of Australia Investigator Grant (grant No. APP1173952 to J.E.S.).

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : APP1159914, 1172987, APP1116937, APP1173952


Bondonno, N. P., Davey, R. J., Murray, K., Radavelli-Bagatini, S., Bondonno, C. P., Blekkenhorst, L. C., . . . Hodgson, J. M. (2021). Associations between fruit intake and risk of diabetes in the AusDiab cohort: Supplementary material. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 106(10), e4097-e4108.



Fruit, but not fruit juice, intake is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, questions remain about the mechanisms by which fruits may confer protection. Objective The aims of this work were to examine associations between intake of fruit types and 1) measures of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and 2) diabetes at follow-up.


Among participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, fruit and fruit juice intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Associations between fruit and fruit juice intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload plasma glucose, updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of β-cell function (HOMA2-%β), HOMA2 of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S), and fasting insulin levels at baseline and 2) the presence of diabetes at follow-up (5 and 12 years) were assessed using restricted cubic splines in logistic and linear regression models.


This population of 7675 Australians (45% males) had a mean ± SD age of 54 ± 12 years at baseline. Total fruit intake was inversely associated with serum insulin and HOMA2-%β, and positively associated with HOMA2-%S at baseline. Compared to participants with the lowest intakes (quartile 1), participants with moderate total fruit intakes (quartile 3) had 36% lower odds of having diabetes at 5 years (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.92), after adjusting for dietary and lifestyle confounders. Associations with 12-year outcomes were not statistically significant.


A healthy diet including whole fruits, but not fruit juice, may play a role in mitigating T2DM risk.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.