Claire R. Palmer, Edith Cowan University
Jamie W. Bellinge
Marc Sim, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Emma Connolly, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Catherine P. Bondonno, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Kevin D. Croft
Joshua R. Lewis, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Jonathan M. Hodgson, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Nicola P. Bondonno, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
European Journal of Epidemiology
Institute for Nutrition Research / School of Medical and Health Sciences
Reported associations between vitamin K and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality are conflicting. The 56,048 participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health prospective cohort study, with a median [IQR] age of 56 [52-60] years at entry and of whom 47.6% male, were followed for 23 years, with 14,083 reported deaths. Of these, 5015 deaths were CVD-related, and 6342 deaths were cancer-related. Intake of vitamin K (phylloquinone) was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and its relationship with mortality outcomes was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. A moderate to high (87-192 µg/d) intake of vitamin K was associated with a lower risk of all-cause [HR (95%CI) for quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.76 (0.72, 0.79)], cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related [quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.72 (0.66, 0.79)], and cancer-related mortality [quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.80 (0.75, 0.86)], after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle confounders. The association between vitamin K intake and cardiovascular disease-related mortality was present in all subpopulations (categorised according to sex, smoking status, diabetes status, and hypertension status), while the association with cancer-related mortality was only present in current/former smokers (p for interaction = 0.002). These findings suggest that promoting adequate intakes of foods rich in vitamin K may help to reduce all-cause, CVD-related, and cancer-related mortality at the population level.
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