Author Identifier

Lauren Blekkenhorst

ORCID : 0000-0003-1561-9052

Joshua Lewis

ORCID : 0000-0003-1003-8443

Jonathan Hodgson

ORCID : 0000-0001-6184-7764

Marc Sim

ORCID : 0000-0001-5166-0605

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Frontiers in Nutrition


Frontiers Media S.A.


School of Medical and Health Sciences / Institute for Nutrition Research




Edith Cowan University - Open Access Support Scheme 2021

Perth Royal Hospital

National Health and Medical Research Council

National Heart Foundation of Australia

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : 1172987, 1116973


Palmer, C. R., Koch, H., Shinde, S., Blekkenhorst, L. C., Lewis, J. R., Croft, K. D., . . . Sim, M. (2021). Development of a vitamin K database for commercially available food in Australia. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, article 753059.


Vitamin K content of foods is known to vary substantially by geographical location. In Australia, no Vitamin K database of food exists, thereby creating ambiguity when trying to develop national dietary intake guidelines. This investigation aimed to develop a Vitamin K database for commonly consumed foods that are commercially available in Australian supermarkets. The Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone; PK) and K2 (menaquinone; MK4, MK7) content of 60 foods known to contain Vitamin K were assessed (e.g., vegetables fruits, oils, animal products, dairy and fermented foods). A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and used to measure PK and MKs in different foods with an improved chromatographic separation and detection of Vitamin K's and their analogs. The LOD and LOQ for PK and MK4 was 0.1, 0.5 ng/ml and 0.5, 1.0 ng/ml, respectively. The majority foods contained detectable PK (53/60), about half contained MK4 (31/60), and few contained MK7 (3/60). PK was highest in green leafy vegetables, with moderate amounts in oils. Highest MK4 content was in chicken eggs and meat products such as ham and chicken. This database enables nutritional epidemiologist to estimate dietary Vitamin K intake, especially in Australian cohorts, for a range of health outcomes.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research Themes


Priority Areas

Exercise, nutrition, lifestyle and other interventions for optimal health across the lifespan