The British Journal of Nutrition
Cambridge University Press
School of Medical and Health Sciences
The Paleolithic diet excludes two major sources of fibre, grains and legumes. However, it is not known whether this results in changes to resistant starch (RS) consumption. Serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced mainly from colonic fermentation and hepatic conversion of animal protein and is implicated in CVD, but changes in RS intake may alter concentrations. We aimed to determine whether intake of RS and serum concentrations of TMAO varied in response to either the Paleolithic or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) diets and whether this was related to changes in food group consumption. A total of thirty-nine women (mean age 47 (sd 13) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2) were randomised to AGHE (n 17) or Paleolithic diets (n 22) for 4 weeks. Serum TMAO concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-MS; food groups, fibre and RS intake were estimated from weighed food records. The change in TMAO concentrations between groups (Paleolithic 3·39 μm v. AGHE 1·19 μm, P = 0·654) did not reach significance despite greater red meat and egg consumption in the Paleolithic group (0·65 serves/d; 95 % CI 0·2, 1·1; P
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