Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts Honours


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Dr Peter Bedford

Second Advisor

Dr Ed Jaggard


The Islamic principle of Tauhid (Divine Unity) is foundational to Islam and Tasawwuf, better known to us as Sufism. Within the Indonesian consciousness of Islam, Tauhid can also mirror Indonesia's national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity), its understanding of tolerance reverberating with the purity of Islam. The recent renewal of Sufism in Indonesia may provide a Sufi paradigm shift to help relieve some tension surrounding an emergent Islamist intolerance, thereby smoothing the rising waters of uncertainty flowing alongside the current Islamic resurgence. While it is generally rare for Australians to take an interest in Indonesia's mystical Islamic culture, in contrasting the empty heart of Australian spirituality to the fullness of the Sufi spirit in Indonesia, we may discover therein some ways of bridging the gulf of ignorance and cultural superstition surrounding our island in self determined isolation. Surely it would be in our long term interest to uncover the inspiration and intent behind the particular form of Islamic expression in Indonesia that is Tasawwrif, and how it may lead to Tauhid or Unity.