In an influential book entitled Federal Government, Professor K.C. Wheare observed that in countries satisfying in practice his understanding of the federal principle, namely the United States of America, Switzerland, Canada and Australia, education was a matter substantially in the hands of regional (state, canton, provincial) governments. The federal principle was defined (Wheare, 1967[ p.10) as "the method of dividing powers so that the general and regional governments are each within a sphere co-ordinate and independent". After the federal bargain (Riker, 1964, P.11) has been negotiated, powers are sacrificed to the central organ but the contract.ing political entities are granted autonomy In certain spheres. For practical purposes each citizen living within the national territory is subject to two sets of law and has to deal with (at least) two independent levels of government. In such federal systems Wheare maintained (1967, p.156) that it is "wise" to keep education in the hands of regional governments, a maxim he attempted to uphold with several references to the controversies in Canada over the religious and linguistic aspects of the education power.
Phillips, Harry C.
"The Education Power in Canada,"
Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 2
, Article 3.
Available at: https://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/vol2/iss2/3