Twenty preservice teachers were interviewed prior to commencement of their teacher education course to establish the conceptions of teaching and approaches to learning with which they entered the course. Students were categorised as surface, deep or achieving in their learning orientations (Biggs, 1987). Five conceptions of teaching were identified: the nurturing helper, authority and disciplinarian, shaper of children's lives, presenter of information and facilitator of thinking and learning. There was a consistent relationship between conceptions of learning and conceptions of teaching. Surface learners tended to see teaching as transmission of information. There were very few deep learners, however they tended to see teaching as facilitation of thinking and learning. Achieving learners tended to see teaching as nurturing. Achieving learners also indicated that shaping children's lives and imposing discipline were important.
Christensen, C. A., Massey, D. R., Isaacs, P. J., & Synott, J. (1995). Beginning Teacher Education : Students' Conceptions of Teaching and Approaches to Learning.. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.1995v20n1.3